Sigmund Freud

“New ideas from four frontiers of knowledge — the sciences of mind, brain, genes, and evolution — are breaching the wall with a new understanding of human nature. In this chapter I will show how they are filling in the blank slate, declassing the noble savage, and exorcising the ghost in the machine.”

Steven Pinker

Ghostbusters Janine GIF

***

“In 1997 an IBM computer called Deep Blue defeated the world chess champion Garry Kasparov, and unlike its predecessors, it did not just evaluate trillions of moves by brute force but was fitted with strategies that intelligently responded to patterns in the game. Newsweek called the match “The Brain’s Last Stand.” Kasparov called the outcome “the end of mankind.””

Steven Pinker

You Look Rather Dashing Today. GIF

***

“This argument against the Blank Slate was stated pithily by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646– 1716) in a reply to Locke. Leibniz repeated the empiricist motto “There is nothing in the intellect that was not first in the senses,” then added, “except the intellect itself.””

Steven Pinker

***

“This is not to say that cognitive scientists have put the nature-nurture debate completely behind them; they are still spread out along a continuum of opinion on how much standard equipment comes with the human mind. At one end are the philosopher Jerry Fodor, who has suggested that all concepts might be innate (even “doorknob” and “tweezers”), and the linguist Noam Chomsky,

Noam Chomsky Gross GIF

who believes that the word "learning" is misleading and we should say that children "grow" language instead."

Steven Pinker

Tree Green GIF

***

“The moral, then, is that familiar categories of behavior — marriage customs, food taboos, folk superstitions, and so on — certainly do vary across cultures and have to be learned, but the deeper mechanisms of mental computation that generate them may be universal and innate.”

Steven Pinker

***

“More generally, the interplay of mental systems can explain how people can entertain revenge fantasies that they never act on, or can commit adultery only in their hearts. In this way the theory of human nature coming out of the cognitive revolution has more in common with the Judeo-Christian theory of human nature, and with the psychoanalytic theory proposed by Sigmund Freud,

Luke Skywalker GIF by Star Wars

than with behaviorism, social constructionism, and other versions of the Blank Slate. Behavior is not just emitted or elicited, nor does it come directly out of culture or society. It comes from an internal struggle among mental modules with differing agendas and goals.”

Steven Pinker

Nude Academy

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Kocaeli Üniversitesi Psikolojik Danışmanlık ve Rehberlik

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