“- You’ve said before that enlightenment ideals as well as the principles of classical liberalism have influenced your own political philosophies. Could you just comment on some of the philosophers in particular who have had an impact on you?

– It’s a little misleading because in general my own picture of how the world works and the way it oughta work was pretty well been formed before I became familiar with the intellectual and tradition the Enlightenment and earlier tradition. So it’s not so much an influence as just a recognition and an understanding a deeper understanding of the way I think things would work. But you know there are there are philosophers and political thinkers and others who whose work I find very congenial in many ways, some ways not all, I could written about some of them but I think we’ve least my experiences we form our own ideas we experience participation by where lives work or associations what we do to try to change the world and then we read things that give substance and direction and often the deeper roots to it. Anyhow, my experience.”


Propria are non-essential properties which flow from the essence of a kind, such that they are necessary to that kind even without being essential. For instance, if we suppose that being rational is essential to human beings, then it will follow that every human being is capable of grammar. Being capable of grammar is not the same property as being rational, though it follows from it. Aristotle assumes his readers will appreciate that being rational asymmetrically explains being capable of grammar, even though, necessarily, something is rational if and only if it is also capable of grammar. Thus, because it is explanatorily prior, being rational has a better claim to being the essence of human beings than does being capable of grammar. Consequently, Aristotle’s essentialism is more fine-grained than mere modal essentialism. “



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Kocaeli Üniversitesi Psikolojik Danışmanlık ve Rehberlik

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