primary drive an innate drive, which may be universal or species-specific, that is created by deprivation of a needed substance (e.g., food) or by the need to engage in a specific activity (e.g., nest building in birds). Compare secondary drive.
primary emotion any one of a limited set of emotions that typically are manifested and recognized universally across cultures. The list of primary emotions varies across different theorists. They often include fear, anger, joy, sadness, disgust, contempt, and surprise; some theorists also include shame, shyness, and guilt. Also called basic emotion; core emotion. Compare secondary emotion.
primary empathy an approach to client-centered therapy in which the therapist actively tries to experience the client’s situation and then to restate it from the client’s point of view and emotional standpoint.
secondary drive a learned drive; that is, a drive that is developed through association with or generalization from a primary drive. For example, in an avoidance conditioning experiment in which a rat must go from one compartment into another to escape an electric shock, the secondary drive is fear of the shock and the primary drive with which it is associated is avoidance of pain. Also called acquired drive.
secondary emotion an emotion that is not recognized or manifested universally across cultures or that requires social experience for its construction. For some theorists, pride represents a secondary emotion, stemming from the conjunction of a primary emotion (joy) and a favorable public reaction. Other secondary emotions include envy, frustration, and jealousy.
unity of consciousness the concept that at any given moment the contents of consciousness are experienced as a single integrated state, even though they will consist of a multiplicity of perceptions, thoughts, feelings, and so forth. For example, a person may be looking out the window while at the same time listening to jazz, eating chocolate, experiencing a mild pain in the knee, and remembering an earlier conversation, yet these phenomena will be experienced as unified with one another in a single moment of consciousness. See also coconsciousness; divided consciousness.